Indonesia is currently facing the double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. Nevertheless, infectious diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Communicable disease such as malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis (TBC), hepatitis and dengue are still out of control in various regions in Indonesia. Approximately 250 people die of TBC everyday. In addition, Malaria and Dengue Haemmorhagic Fever (DHF) are major vector-borne disease in large parts of Indonesia. Moreover, regardless of effortless immunization and decrease trends of infection, yet Hepatitis remains a health concern due to the emergence of novel sub-genotypes in several parts of Indonesia. Furthermore the emergence of resistance strains of pathogen circulating in Indonesia has contributed to the complexity of disease management.
West Nusa Tenggara is a province situated in the East Region of Indonesia. As like most part of Indonesia, it is plagued by communicable diseases, with focus on Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, and vector borne disease such as Malaria and Dengue.Responding to the complexity of disease pattern, management and potential health threats, therefore infectious disease will remain to be a major set of challenges for the province during the coming years. Thus strategic measures through research should be taken into place to address the burden of infectious diseases.
The Faculty of Medicine Mataram University is the only state University in the Province of Nusa Tenggara. One of the primary goal of the faculty is to take part in the improvement of health for the people of West Nusa Tenggara and East Region of Indonesia through research and dissemination of knowledge pertaining to the prevention, diagnosis, control and treatment of infectious diseases. Furthermore as part of its capacity building strategy, the faculty continues to establish partnership and collaboration with various institution locally and globally.
The research agenda of the Faculty of Medicine Mataram University, focuses on the health aspects that are mostly effected by the people in its region, which include: Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, vector-borne disease like Malaria and Dengue. The priority research are organized along major research streams which will lead to an effective strategies to address health issues in east part of Indonesia.
Stream I: Research related with distribution of disease
In particular we focus on molecular epidemiology of infectious disease to understand the genetic variations of pathogen, determining the evolution of pathogen, emergence of new genotypes and also identifying the present of anti-resistance gene in pathogens, particularly in the East region of Indonesia. Several examples of research in this stream are:
1. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance and risk factors associated with the spread of resistance in West Nusa Tenggara.
This surveillance would be based upon routine drug susceptibility testing. It would also investigate specific profile/characteristic of patients including age groups, sex, HIV status, treatment history and other risk factors associated with resistance in the population.
2. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Malaria and Dengue in West Nusa Tenggara and East part of Indonesia.
This study would unravel the diverse sequence of M. TBC, malaria and dengue circulating in East Indonesia yet offer novel genes as future candidate vaccine that are more effective for the population of East Indonesia. Furthermore, regarding to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and malaria, this study aims to look upon the genetic diversity and level of drug resistance in isolates circulating in the region from new cases of infection. This would provide different pattern of drug susceptibility and guide treatment that are more specificfor the population of West Nusa Tenggara thus better treatment outcome would be achieved
Stream II: Research related with improved diagnostic measures
The development of new diagnostic approach of infectious disease using local strains, thus increase the sensitivity and specificity of assays. The research focuses on identifying existing and new antigens also monoclonal antibody approach for the development of new Rapid Diagnostic Kit (RDT) using Indonesian isolates. Several example of research interest are:
1. Development of malaria rapid detection kit (RDT) using local strain of monoclonal antibody such as pLDH and HRP2
2. Development of novel skin test using protein ESAT6 from local isolates for detection of latent Mycobacterium infection.
Stream III: Research related with primary prevention
Vaccines offer the greatest hope for infectious disease prevention. The challenges are to identify vaccine components that are suitably safe yet broadly immunogenic. The research in this stream focuses on new vaccine candidates using local strains. Several research interest are:
1. Optimization of construction and expression of pETMtb72f recombinant plasmid as candidate vaccine against Tuberculosis
2. Modification and characterization of MSP1-19 as future candidate vaccine against Malaria
Stream IV: Research related with new therapeutic approach
The rise of resistance strains of pathogen circulating in Indonesia, contributes to the burden and complexity of disease management. Thus developments of new properties as candidate therapy are essential. The research focuses on:
1. Identification of sensitivity of available antibiotic towards various infectious disease.
2. Identifying potential properties in natural sources from the east part of Indonesia, such as plant derived antibacterial as future compound for development of new antibiotics.